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#1 SkunkyAroma

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Posted 13 July 2016 - 03:47 PM

Cannabis? Crucial in Lyme? Medical Marijuana and Overcoming Chronic Illness

 

by Dr. Tristin Wallace

 

 

Yes. There are so many benefits to the use of medical marijuana, aka Cannabis, in treating Lyme disease that a whole book could be written. In fact, a whole book now has been written. If you are sick with Lyme disease or other chronic conditions, please read Cannabis for Lyme disease and Related Conditions by Shelly White, which clarifies the medicinal applications of medical marijuana.

Benefits of Marijuana in Chronic Illness

  • Antibiotic against Lyme and against co-infections: marijuana is such a powerful antibiotic that it can even kill MRSA. The marijuana molecules that kill bacteria are cannabidiol, cannabichromene, cannabigerol, tetrahyrdocannabinol, and cannabinol.
  • Anti parasitic: the whole Marijuana plant contains important molecules that increase its effectiveness against microbial infections. These chemicals are called terpenoids.
  • Anti inflammatory: marijuana molecules called cannaflavins which have thirty times more anti-inflammatory capabilities than aspirin!
  • Immune balancing: called “immuno-modulation,” immune balance occurs with the help of Marijuana molecules such as Anadeamide (AEA), and cannabinoids, helping the immune system fight the disease and not the patient.
  • THC, the notorious part of the plant that causes the “high” feeling, has numerous medical benefits including: anti-inflammatory, anti-epileptic, anti-depressant, anti-nausea, appetite stimulant, pain relieving, reduces blood pressure, eases glaucoma pressure, and acts against cancer.
  • Reliably induces the crucial healing factor in healing and detoxification: sleep.
  • Inspires the patient with optimism, hope, detachment and relaxation.
  • Stimulates release of Dopamine and Serotonin, improving outlook and relieving pain.
  • Reduces inflammation in the brain, calming Lyme encephalitis
  • Potent antioxidant protecting against cellular damage and preventing ischemic damage.
  • Serotonin receptor stimulator, with a calming influence that also improves anxiety and depression.
  • Muscle relaxant
  • DNA protective
  • Anti arthritic
  • Effective treatment for nerve pain, migraine, muscle spasm, brain fog, insomnia
  • Effective symptom management for PTSD

An objection commonly voiced to me by Lyme patients considering marijuana: “it makes me paranoid,” or “I don’t like the way it makes me feel.” Another is: “I have enough brain fog; the last thing I need is to be high.” True enough! “High” is really not my medical goal for you. That said, most of the time my Lyme patients are suffering from a kind of exhaustion that other people have a hard time imagining or relating to.

The irony of this profound fatigue is that simultaneously, Lyme sufferers find achieving restful sleep to be tricky and elusive. Here, that same molecule that induces the high can be a great helper, because at the appropriate dose, it also induces restful sleep.

 

Marijuana’s medicinal molecules work together synergistically

Synergistic and potentiating qualities have been demonstrated in studies on many of the medicinal constituents of the marijuana plant. In order to obtain all of the above benefits, it is necessary to ingest a whole plant product, rather than an isolated form such as CBD.

Many who wish to experience Marijuana’s health benefits are reluctant to try it because they do not wish to experience its psychoactive effects, also known as “the high.” For these individuals, take VERY small, edible doses of cannabis oil,  slowly over a period of weeks and you will get the effects without experiencing any high.  Rick Simpson recommends starting with an amount of decarboxylated cannabis oil that is half the size of a grain of rice and move up slowly from there. www.phoenixtears.ca

Some patients do not mind the stupefying effect of “the high,” as long as it also causes them to fall asleep.  For these patients, Indica strains are valuable.

In treating chronic illness, patients can benefit from Sativa as well as from Indica, if the different types of strains are used at different times of the day.

 

Cautions regarding medical Marijuana use:

Chronically ill individuals should avoid ingestion of toxic chemicals such as pesticides, herbicides, or toxic solvents. Choose organically grown medical Marijuana.

Poorly dried or prepared herbs including Marijuana can harbor mold. Ask for literature and/or information regarding the growth, harvesting, and preparation of medical Marijuana.

Marijuana allergy exists. If allergic symptoms such as hives, swelling, or difficulty breathing arise, discontinue use.

As mentioned above, Marijuana is an excellent treatment of Inflammation. This however can cause Herxheimer Reaction, also known as Herxing. Basically what happens during the Inflammation Therapy injured or dead bacteria release their endotoxins much too fast for the body to comfortably handle it, causing an inflammation flare up. Marijuana can cause Lyme patients to Herx and the way I see it, Herxing is a great sign that your treatment plan needs more endotoxin drainage.

It is recommended that each patient be judicious in the use of Marijuana. Respect the potency of the plant.  Tolerance to Marijuana can also develop with use.

How to Use Marijuana Safely

Whether or not the patient utilizes Sativa or Indica, it is not appropriate to operate heavy machinery while under the influence of Marijuana for the first time.

 

In choosing a form of medicinal Marijuana, keep in mind that most practitioners do not recommend smoking Marijuana, because fragile lung tissue can be harmed by inhaling hot smoke. Edibles are recommended.

MANY FIRST TIME USERS OF MARIJUANA USE TOO MUCH AND EXPERIENCE AN UNCOMFORTABLENESS THAT SOON PASSES

Dosing Marijuana has individual variance. When learning to use Marijuana, it is important to start with a smaller dose than recommended and assess its effects over a time period of two to four hours. Edible cannabis can take hours to full take effect. Because chronically ill people can react with greater sensitivity to medications than healthier users of Marijuana, it’s recommended that patients with chronic illness take one-quarter the recommended dose of any form of Marijuana.

 

Medical Marijuana comes in different forms

Smoking inhalation – instantaneous benefit. Because its effects are immediate, it is easy to determine whether you’ve achieved adequate dosing.

Vapor inhalation – instantaneous benefit, protective of the lungs, yields much higher dose of medicine. Because its effects are immediate, it is easy to determine whether you’ve achieved adequate dosing.

Oils – hemp oil is higher in CBD with only trace (if any) THC. Cannabis flower oil is “hash oil” and high in TCH.

Hash oil – compressed flower bud resin, high in THC.

Rick Simpson Oil – oil concentrated out of Marijuana flowers that have been extracted repeatedly in alcohol, then dried slowly. Low yield, very high potency, used by cancer patients with many anecdotal stories of success.

BHO – highly potent, solvent extract of Marijuana flower buds. Though considered safe to consume, Butane and other solvent-extracted Hash Oils are nevertheless environmentally toxic and can leave toxic reside on the Marijuana product.

C02 oil – an environmentally safe and nontoxic way to create “BHO.”

Cannabis infused coconut or olive oil – edible oil taken drop by drop for long term management of symptoms and eventual maintenance of disease remission.

Tincture – Marijuana flowers and buds soaked in alcohol then strained. Potent, for addition to food, sublingual administration drop by drop, or topical application to painful joints.

Edibles – Food items produced using Marijuana infused oil or butter.

Juice – The juice of Marijuana leaves: a generous handful of stemless leaves blended with one cup of water, strained through cheesecloth or sieve. Portions can be consumed fresh or frozen in ice cube trays for later consumption. Juice made by this method does contain THC, but, because it’s never heated, the THC does not confer any psychoactive effects or “high.”

Teas – Marijuana steeped at least 30 minutes in boiled water, with alcohol or a fat source such as butter or oil, added to capture fat soluble molecules into the solution.

Topicals – lotions and salves with marijuana tincture added, intended for relief of pain and muscle spasm.

CBD oil – extract from the “hemp plant" or non-drug portion of the Marijuana plant. Legal, because it contains no or very little THC. Gently confers multiple benefits

 

How to make your own Medical Marijuana-infused oil:

 

https://www.youtube....bed/KZXGH6mYr3Y



#2 SkunkyAroma

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Posted 13 July 2016 - 04:37 PM

  New MRSA Defense

 

Marijuana extracts kill antibiotic-resistant MRSA without a high.

 

by Nora Schultz

 
 

Substances harvested from cannabis plants could soon outshine conventional antibiotics in the escalating battle against drug-resistant bacteria. The compounds, called cannabinoids, appear to be unaffected by the mechanism that superbugs like MRSA use to evade existing antibiotics. Scientists from Italy and the United Kingdom, who published their research in the Journal of Natural Products, say that cannabis-based creams could also be developed to treat persistent skin infectio

 
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Cannabis has long been known to have antibacterial properties and was studied in the 1950s as a treatment for tuberculosis and other diseases. But research into using cannabis as an antibiotic has been limited by poor knowledge of the plant’s active ingredients and by the controversy surrounding its use as a recreational drug.

Now Giovanni Appendino of the Piemonte Orientale University, in Italy, and Simon Gibbons of the School of Pharmacy at the University of London, U.K., have revisited the antibiotic power of marijuana by systematically testing different cannabinoids’ ability to kill MRSA.

MRSA, short for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, is a bacterium that can cause difficult-to-treat infections since it does not respond to many antibiotics. Many healthy people carry S. aureus on their skin, but problems arise when multi-drug-resistant strains infect people with weak immune systems through an open wound. In the worst cases, the bug spreads throughout the body, causing a life-threatening infection.

To make matters worse, resistance to antibiotics is rapidly increasing, and some strains are now even immune to vancomycin, a powerful antibiotic that is normally used only as a last resort when other drugs fail.

But when Appendino, Gibbons, and their colleagues applied extracts from five major cannabinoids to bacterial cultures of six strains of MRSA, they discovered that the cannabinoids were as effective at killing the bugs as vancomycin and other antibiotics.

“The cannabinoids even showed exceptional activity against the MRSA strain that makes extra amounts of the proteins that give the bugs resistance against many antibiotics,” says Gibbons. These proteins, he explains, allow the bacteria to “hoover up unwanted things from inside the cell and spit them out again.”

Conveniently, of the five cannabinoids tested by the researchers, the two most effective ones also happen to be nonpsychoactive, meaning that they cannot cause a high. “What this means is, we could use fiber hemp plants that have no use as recreational drugs to cheaply and easily produce potent antibiotics,” says Appendino.

In an attempt to discover how the cannabinoids kill MRSA, the team manipulated several chemical groups within the compounds. Most of the changes did not affect the antibiotic activity at all, and those that did seemed to influence only how well the cannabinoid is taken up by the bacterial cells.

“Everything points towards these compounds having been evolved by the plants as antimicrobial defenses that specifically target bacterial cells,” says Gibbons. “But the actual mechanism by which they kill the bugs is still a mystery. We’ve tested whether the cannabinoids affect common antibiotic targets like fatty acid synthesis or the [DNA-bending enzyme] DNA gyrase, but they don’t. I really cannot hazard a guess how they do it, but their high potency as antibiotics suggests there must be a very specific mechanism.”

Appendino and Gibbons say that cannabinoids could quickly be developed as treatments for skin infections, provided the nonpsychoactive varieties are used. “The most practical application of cannabinoids would be as topical agents to treat ulcers and wounds in a hospital environment, decreasing the burden of antibiotics,” says Appendino.

Whether the cannabinoids could also be delivered in the form of an injection or in pills is less clear, the pair says, because they may be inactivated by blood serum.

Frank Bowling of the University of Manchester, who has had success treating MRSA-infected wounds with maggots, says that “any alternative treatment that removes MRSA from the wound and prevents it from spreading into the body is fantastic and preferable to using antibiotics that have strong side effects and against which resistance is already developing.” He cautions, however, that the researchers still need to show that the cannabinoids are safe to use.

This is not something that Appendino is too concerned about: “The topical use of cannabis preparations has a long tradition in European medicine, and no allergies have been reported.”

Mark Rogerson of GW Pharmaceuticals, a U.K.-based company that develops cannabinoid-based drugs to treat severe pain caused by multiple sclerosis and cancer, says that the discovery that cannabinoids kill MRSA “really underlines the potentially great diversity of medical applications that cannabis-based medicine can have. You can almost think of the cannabis plant as a mini pharma industry in its own right.” But Rogerson says that it is unlikely that existing cannabis-based medicines could be used to treat MRSA because the exact effect will depend on the correct combination and dosage of cannabinoids.

Meanwhile, Appendino and Gibbons hope that antibacterial effectiveness could also make cannabinoids suitable preservatives for cosmetics and toiletries. “The golden standards of preservatives are parabens and chlorinated phenols,” says Appendino, but these compounds do not degrade well in the environment and are strongly suspected to be hormonal modifiers. He also argues that, since all major cannabinoids are similarly effective, complete purification of a single compound isn’t necessary. So semipurified cannabinoid mixtures extracted from nonpsychoactive plants could make a cheap and easy alternative to conventional preservatives.



#3 SkunkyAroma

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Posted 13 July 2016 - 04:40 PM

Medical marijuana: Hunter-gatherer users have fewer worms  

By Eric Sorensen, WSU science writer

 

 

VANCOUVER, Wash. – Washington State University researchers have found that the more hunter-gatherers smoke cannabis, the less they are infected by intestinal worms. The link suggests that they may unconsciously be, in effect, smoking medical marijuana.

Ed Hagen, a WSU Vancouver anthropologist, explored cannabis use among Aka foragers to see if people away from the cultural and media influences of Western civilization might use plant toxins medicinally.

“In the same way we have a taste for salt, we might have a taste for psychoactive plant toxins because these things kill parasites,” he said.

In an earlier study, Hagen found that the heavier tobacco smokers among the Aka also had fewer helminths, parasitic intestinal worms.

He cautions, however, that the studies have their limits. While nicotine has been seen killing worms in livestock, that hasn’t been directly demonstrated in humans. Cannabis kills worms in a petri dish, but researchers have not shown it killing worms in animals, Hagen said.

The Aka are a “pygmy” people of the Congo basin. As one of the world’s last groups of hunter-gatherers, they offer anthropologists a window into a way of life accounting for some 99 percent of human history. They might also offer an alternative hypothesis to explain human drug use.

The prevailing explanation is that recreational drugs “hijack the pleasure centers of the brain,” making people feel good. But by tasting bitter and making us feel sick, they also trigger mechanisms that tell us we’re consuming something toxic.

“So we thought, ‘Why would so many people around the world be using plant toxins in this very “recreational” way?’ ” said Hagen. “If you look at non-human animals, they do the same thing, and a lot of biologists think they’re doing it to kill parasites.”

The issue is significant on at least two fronts, write Hagen and his colleagues, because substance abuse and intestinal helminth infection are “two of the developing world’s great health problems.” Their study appears in the American Journal of Human Biology.

Researchers are unsure when the Aka might have first smoked cannabis or when it arrived on the continent. It may have come with traders from the Indian subcontinent around the first century A.D., but Hagen and his colleagues say it might not have been smoked until European colonization in the 17th century.

Hagen surveyed almost all of the nearly 400 adult Aka along the Lobaye River in the Central African Republic and found roughly 70 percent of the men and 6 percent of the women used cannabis. The polling was supported by bioassays of the men that found high enough levels of THCA, a metabolic byproduct of cannabis’s active ingredient, to indicate that 68 percent of them had recently smoked.

Stool samples collected from the men to gauge their worm burden found some 95 percent of them were infected with helminths. But those who consumed cannabis had a significantly lower rate of infection. A year after being treated with a commercial antihelmintic, the cannabis users were reinfected with fewer worms.

While the Aka deliberately consume a tea of a local plant, motunga, to fight parasitic infections, they do not think of cannabis or tobacco as medicine, Hagen said. This suggests they are unconsciously using cannabis to ward off parasites, he said.

Hagen’s co-authors on the study are Casey Roulette, who did the research as part of his WSU Ph.D., and Pasteur Institute researchers Mirdad Kazanji and Sébastien Breurec. Hagen and Roulette were funded in part by the State of Washington Initiative Measure No. 171.



#4 SkunkyAroma

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Posted 28 July 2016 - 11:00 PM

Cannabis as repellent and pesticide

John M. McPartland

VAM/AMRITA
53 Washington Street, Middlebury, VT 05753 USA

        McPartland, John M. 1997. Cannabis as repellent and pesticide. Journal of the International Hemp Association 4(2): 87-92 Cannabis has been used as a pest repellent and pesticide in a variety of formulations. It has been planted as a companion crop to deter insects, nematodes, fungi, and weedy plants. Dried leaves and flowers have repelled or killed insects, mites, nematodes, and weeds. Plant extracts (either aqueous or polar organic solvent extracts) have killed or repelled insects, mites, nematodes, fungi, weedy plants, bacteria, and protozoans. Pure cannabinoids reportedly inhibit or kill bacteria, fungi, and insects. The validity of some of these reports is debated. Most of the scientific literature describes in vitro experiments, few studies concern field work. Utilizing left-over Cannabis leaves against pests appears to be a possible use for this harvest residue.

Introduction
        Certain plants with repellent and pesticidal properties have long been used to rid our crops, homes, and bodies of various pests (Grainge and Ahmed 1988). Famous examples include garlic (Allium sativum L.), castor (Ricinus communis L.), marigold (Tagetes patula L.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), neem (Azadirachta indica L.), pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium (Trevir.) Vis.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), and strychnine (Strychnos nux-vomica L.). Cannabis has also been used as a pest repellent and pesticide. This paper documents these uses from the scientific literature.

Materials and methods
        The following data bases were searched with the keywords Cannabis, hemp, marijuana, cannabinoids: AGRICOLA (1990-1996), Biological and Agricultural Index (1964-1990), Review of Agricultural Entomology (1913-1996, a continuation of Review of Applied Entomology, Series A), Review of Plant Pathology (1922-1996, a continuation of Review of Applied Mycology), MEDLINE (1984-1994), and Index Medicus (1964-1994).
        Cataloged holdings at the following libraries were searched for texts concerning allelopathy, biopesticides, botanical pesticides, and biological control: Dartmouth, Harvard, Michigan State University, National Agriculture Library, National Library of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, University of Illinois, University of Missouri, University of Michigan, University of Pennsylvania, University of Vermont. All information regarding Cannabis was scanned for supporting citations, and antecedent sources were retrieved.

Results
        Cannabis has been utilized as a pest repellent or pesticide, in a variety of formulations. These formulations include dried plant parts, plant extracts or pure cannabinoids, as well as use of the genus as a "companion plant".

Companion plants
        Companion plants constitute a form of biological control - the use of living organisms to manage unwanted pests and disease organisms. Cannabis plants have been grown as companion plants alongside crops which require this protection. Riley (1885) noted that Cannabis sativa growing near cotton exerted a "protective influence" against cotton worms (Alabama argillacea, then called Aletia xylina). Similarly, hemp grown around vegetable fields safeguarded the fields from attack by a cabbage caterpillar, Pieris brassicae (Beling 1932); potato fields were protected against the potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Stratii 1976); wheat suffered less damage by the root maggot, Delia coarctata (Pakhomov and Potushanskii 1977); and root exudates of Cannabis repelled underground larvae of the European chafer Melolontha melolontha (Mateeva 1995). Some of these reports have been refuted in subsequent studies (Ziarkiewicz and Anasiewicz 1961, Mackiewicz 1962, Kurilov and Kukhta 1977).
         Cannabis suppresses the growth of neighboring plants, whether they are noxious chickweed, Stellaria media (Stupnicka-Rodzynkiewicz 1970) or valuable crops such as lupine, beets, brassicas (Good 1953) and maize (Pandey and Mishra 1982). Hemp has been interplanted with potatoes to deter the potato blight fungus, Phytophthora infestans (Israel 1981).
        Hemp has been rotated with potatoes to suppress the potato cyst nematode, Heterodera rostochiensis (Kir’yanova and Krall 1971). Hemp rotations also suppressed soil populations of the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne chitwoodi (Kok et al. 1994). Some cultivars of Cannabis are resistant to Meloidogyne hapla (de Meijer 1993). Scheifele et al. (1997) assessed the soil populations of several nematodes, before and after a hemp crop (using cultivars ‘Unico B’ and ‘Kompolti’) in Ontario, Canada. The hemp crop suppressed soybean cyst nematodes (Heterodera glycines), but increased the populations of spiral nematodes (Heliocotylenchus or Scutellonema species) and root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita).
        Mateeva (1995) studied an unspecified Meloidogyne on four different crops growing in Bulgarian soil. After 30 days, cucumber plants averaged 56 root knots per plant and 396 Meloidoygne larvae were found in the surrounding soil. Tomato plants averaged 42 root knots and 318 larvae, Cannabis plants averaged 5 root knots and 21 larvae, and marigolds averaged 1 root knot and no larvae. Mateeva concluded, "by including unfriendly plants in the rotation scheme with tomato and cucumber, it is possible to obtain a soil completely cleared from root knot nematodes."

Dried plant parts
        Grewal (1989) suppressed mushroom-eating nematodes (Aphelenchoides composticola) by mixing 3 kg of dried Cannabis leaves into 137 kg of the compost used to cultivate edible Agaricus mushrooms. He also measured suppression of most mesophilic fungi in the mixture - especially Fusarium solani, Trichoderma viride, and Verticillium sp. Storage fungi such as Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. demonstrated little suppression.
        Dressing Cannabis seed cakes into soil successfully reduced populations of the soil nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Goswami and Vijayalakshmi 1986). Hemp straw mixed into soil depressed the growth of quack grass, Agropyron repens (Muminovic 1990), and rice, Oryza sativa (Vismal and Shukla 1970).
        Dried leaves have been used to repel weevils in stored grain (Riley and Howard 1892, MacIndoo and Stevers 1924) and woolen cloths (Bouquet 1950). Scattering a 2 cm layer of dried, powdered leaves over piles of potatoes protected them from the tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella, for up to 120 days (Kashyap et al. 1992). Khare et al. (1974) repelled Sitophilus oryzae weevils by mixing powdered Cannabis leaves into wheat, 1% w/w. Prakash et al. (1987) mixed dried leaves into rice, 2% w/w, to control S. oryzae weevils in the laboratory, but this dose failed to provide adequate protection under natural storage conditions (Prakash et al. 1982).
        Dried leaves or juice squeezed from fresh leaves have removed vermin from the scalp and ears (Culpeper 1814, Indian Hemp Drugs Commission 1894), driven off bedbugs when placed under mattresses (Chopra et al. 1941), and killed larvae of the ticks Ixodes redikorzevi, Haemaphysalis punctats, Rhipicephalus rossicus, and Dermacentor marginatus (Reznik and Imbs 1965). In the latter study, powdered leaf material killed larvae in 10-12 minutes, whereas exposure to fresh, whole leaves killed larvae in 50 to 72 minutes.

Plant extracts
        Plant extracts are a popular pesticide formulation. Extracts are produced by soaking fresh or dried plant material in a solvent. The plant material may be mashed or soaked whole. After an appropriate period of time, the solid material is filtered out, leaving the liquid extract. Aqueous extracts are the most popular. Polar organic solvents, such as alcohol or ether, are sometimes used to extract lipids from plant material.
        Many reports describing the use of Cannabis extracts have omitted important information. For instance, the plant part harvested, and when it was harvested (what stage of the life cycle)? How much plant material (by weight) was soaked in the solvent (by volume)? How long was the material extracted, and at what temperature?

Insects
        Inadequately described extracts have killed insect pests (Bouquet 1950, Abrol and Chopra 1963) and the mite Tetranychus urticae (Fenili and Pegazzano 1974). Metzger and Grant (1932) sprayed Japanese beetles with a United States Pharmacopoeia (U.S.P.) 80% ethanol extract, diluted to 1/64 strength. The spray weakly repelled adult beetles. (U.S.P. extracts are no longer available.)
        Stratii (1976) boiled flowering hemp plants in water and sprayed the decoction on potato plants to kill the potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata). Jalees et al. (1993) killed mosquito larvae (Anopheles and Culex species) with an ethanol extract. Bajpai and Sharma (1992) sprayed a 20% w/v cold water extract of "bhang" on crop plants to reduce egg laying by Chilo partellus, a lepidopteran borer. A 20% w/v petroleum ether extract killed 40% of the borers, and this toxicity persisted for four days.

Nematodes
        Mojumder et al. (1989) ground up 100 g of fresh Cannabis leaves in 25 ml water and filtered it through muslin cloth. This extract killed J2-stage juvenile nematodes (Heterodera cajani) in 6 hours. A 5% solution of the extract also killed nematodes after 24 hours. Haseeb et al. (1978) macerated 10 g of either roots or above-ground shoots in a Waring blender for 10 seconds and extracted the mash for 24 hours in 75 ml distilled water. The shoot extract did slightly better than the root extract, killing a variety of plant-pathogenic nematodes (Hoplolaimus indicus, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Tylenchorynchus brassi-cae). When diluted to 10% of its original strength, the root extract caused greater mortality than the shoot extract.

Fungi
        Ferenczy et al. (1958) extracted an Italian hemp (cultivar ‘Bologniensis’) in "organic solvents and alkali". The extract did not inhibit in vitro growth of yeasts (Saccharomyces, Rodotorula, Hansenula spp.) or filamentous fungi (Aspergillus, Penicillium spp.). Ethanol extracts of leaves inhibited spore germination of Ustilago species (Misra and Dixit 1979, Singh and Pathak 1984) and Neovossia indica (Gupta and Singh 1983).
        Upandhyaya and Gupta (1989) inhibited Curvularia growth on petri plates with an aqueous extract, prepared by extracting 10 g of Cannabis leaves in 100 ml cold water. Greater inhibition was achieved with an ethanol extract, mixing 5 g leaves in 100 ml of 80% ethanol. In a similar experiment, Kaushal and Paul (1989) inhibited growth of Colletotrichum truncatum, but not Septoria glycines or Ascochyta phaseolorum. Neither aqueous nor ethanol extracts inhibited growth of the human pathogen Trichophyton rubrum or the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus niger (Gupta and Banerjee 1972).
        Pandey (1982) crushed 10 g of leaves in 100 ml water and filtered the mash with filter paper. A 40% solution of the extract inhibited 25 different species of fungi that infested stored seeds of finger millet (Eleusine cora-cana L.), including species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Drechslera, Fusarium, Cephalosporium, Rhizopus, Mucor and Curvularia. An aqueous extract of hemp protected pine seedlings from a disease caused by an unnamed Fusarium species (Vysots’kyi 1962).

Bacteria
         In vitro experiments show that whole seeds inhibited growth of gram (+) Bacillus cereus (Ferenczy 1956). Subsequent research by Ferenczy et al. (1958) disclosed that the flowering tops and "resinous organs" of hemp inhibited growth of gram (+) bacteria (B. cereus, B. subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus), but did not affect gram (-) bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella species). Ferenczy and coworkers concluded, "the antibacterial activity is ever proportionate to the intensity of the hashish reaction [potency]."
        In contrast, Radosevic et al. (1962) stated, "antibiotic activity decreases with...the increase of hashish activity." They examined resins extracted from 11 different varieties, including tropical hashish varieties (from Brazil) and temperate hemp varieties (from several European countries and Canada) and assayed the effects of these ethanol extracts (using 60 mg Cannabis resin per 1 ml ethanol) on growth of B. subtilis. concluding that cannabidiolic acid was the primary antibiotic agent.
        Ethanol extracts of Cannabis tissue cultures inhibited gram (+) S. aureus, Bacillus megaterium, and gram (-) Escherichia coli, but did not affect gram (-) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Veliky and Genest 1972). In a subsequent study (Veliky and Latta 1974), thin layer chromatography located two active Cannabis ingredients at R f 0.87 and R f 0.61 on the chromatography plates.
        Soviet agronomists sprayed an aqueous extract of hemp and wild hemp, called "cansatine 4" or "konsatin," on potato crops and tomato seeds to kill plant-pathogenic bacteria (Zelepukha 1960). The extract worked against gram (+) Corynebacterium species and gram (-) Pseudomonas and Agrobacterium species (Bel’tyukova 1962). Aqueous extracts also inhibit gram (-) Erwinia carotovora and other bacteria causing soft rot of potatoes (Vijai et al. 1993).

Plants
        Srivastava and Das (1974) prepared an aqueous extract by crushing 100 g of Cannabis leaves and stems in 10 ml of water at 30 o C. The extract inhibited seed germination of purple nut sedge, Cyperus rotundus. Stupnicka-Rodzynkiewicz (1970) used aqueous extracts to inhibit weed seed germination of false chamomile (Matricaria recutita) and lemon grass (Lepidium sativum).

Protozoans
        Nok et al. (1994) prepared a seed extract by crushing 10 g of dried seeds, mixing the powder in 200 ml petroleum ether, stirring continuously for 1 hour, filtering, and then washing the filtrate with 100 ml portions of N/10 NaOH. The ether extract had a profound trypanocidal effect on Trypanosoma brucei tested in vitro. Mice infected by T. brucei were injected with the extract (50 mg/kg/d) and cured in 5 days.

Pure cannabinoids
        Cannabinoids are a family of C 21 terpenophenolic compounds uniquely produced by Cannabis (Turner et al. 1980). Some studies reportedly working with pure cannabinoids are probably erroneous, such as those working with aqueous extracts (Bajpai and Sharma 1992). Aqueous extracts should contain little cannabinoid, as these compounds are not very water-soluble. In a study using ethanol extracts, Veliky and Latta (1974) located two zones of bacterial inhibition at R f 0.87 and R f 0.61. These R f values did not correspond to the tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) values they had determined in a previous study (Veliky and Genest 1972). Nok et al. (1994) assumed that the ether extract they successfully tested against Trypanosoma brucei contained cannabinoids. But they had extracted Cannabis seeds, which do not contain cannabinoids except sporadically as contaminants from bract debris clinging to the outside of the seeds (Máthé and Bócsa 1995).

Bacteria
        Schultz and Haffner (1959) inhibited gram (+) S. aureus and B. subtilis with a dilute solution (1:100,000) of CBD. Inhibition of gram (-) E. coli required a much stronger solution (1:1,000) of CBD. Gal et al. (1969) tested cannabinolic acid as a fruit juice preservative and reported its effectiveness against gram (+) B. cereus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Klingeren and Ham (1976) inhibited gram (+) S. aureus, Streptococcus pyongenes and S. faecalis growing in broth with THC and CBD at minimum inhibitory concentrations of 1-5 µg/ml. Both compounds were also bactericidal. Gram (-) organisms (E. coli, Salmonella typhi, Proteus vulgaris) were resistant to THC and CBD at the highest concentration tested (100 µg/ml).

Fungi
        Flowering tops, where cannabinoid concentrations are highest, are less susceptible to some fungal pathogens (Charles and Jenkins 1914, McPartland 1983). McPartland (1984) extracted flowering tops with petroleum ether, then eluted the extract into its separate components with thin-layer chromatography (using silica gel on glass plates). He sprayed eluted plates with spores of Phomopsis ganjae suspended in a nutrient solution. Spore germination was inhibited by three components of the extract, located by thin-layer chromatography at R f 0, R f 0.20 and R f 0.68. The latter two zones consisted of CBD and THC, respectively.
        Dahiya and Jain (1977) extracted THC and CBD using adsorption column chromatography, (affirming correct identification with thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography), and assayed effects of these cannabinoids against in vitro growth of 18 fungi. Generally, THC inhibited human pathogens (e.g., Microsporium and Trichophyton species) more than CBD. Conversely, CBD inhibited plant pathogens (e.g., Alternaria alternata, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium solani, Trichothecium rose-um) more than THC. Two fungi were completely resistant to THC and CBD - Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum. Interestingly, these two species are frequently isolated from moldy marijuana (McPartland and Pruitt 1997).

Insects
        Rothschild et al. (1977) conducted fascinating experiments with tiger moths (Arctia caja). Tiger moth caterpillars, like monarch butterfly caterpillars, feed on poisonous plants and store plant poisons in their exoskeleton. The stored poisons repel caterpillar predators, providing an evolutionary advantage. Rothschild et al. (1977) fed the caterpillars a Mexican plant rich in THC. The caterpillars stored some of the THC in their exoskeleton. But caterpillars fed a pure diet of high-THC plants were stunted and did not survive beyond the third instar. Nevertheless, Tiger moth caterpillars preferred eating the deadly high-THC varieties to low-THC plants. Rothschild noted, "...should these compounds [cannabinoids] exert a fatal fascination for tiger caterpillars, it suggests another subtle system of insect control by plants."

Discussion
        Research demonstrates the moderate efficacy of Cannabis as a repellent crop or botanical pesticide. We are faced, however, with a paradox: some of the pests controlled by Cannabis are also known to attack hemp and marijuana crops. If Cannabis serves as an effective pesticide, then how can the pests infesting Cannabis survive? Perhaps they intersperse marijuana meals with less-toxic lunches on other plants. Caterpillars of Spilosoma obliqua, for instance, eat Cannabis leaves and female flowers (Nair and Ponnappa 1974). But when Deshmukh et al. (1979) force-fed S. obliqua caterpillars a pure Cannabis diet, they died after 20 days.
        Obviously Cannabis is not a cure-all poison; a highly toxic botanical insecticide could not also serve as a human medicament, as Cannabis does (Clarke and Pate 1994, McPartland and Pruitt 1997). Indeed, plants that are never infested by insects are considered dangerous by traditional Ayurvedic healers in India (Thatte et al. 1993). What active ingredients in Cannabis work so well against pests? Is THC the primary pesticidal ingredient? Characterizing THC as a powerful pesticide would put it in the same category as nicotine, which is highly toxic to arthropods, fish, birds, and mammals. Although THC and other cannabinoids have proven activity against bacteria and fungi, their activity against insects is questionable. The study by Rothschild et al. (1977) assumed the sole difference between high-THC and low-THC plants was the level of THC. Recent work has shown that high-THC plants produce 3 to 6 times more limonene and pinenes than most low-THC plants (Mediavilla and Steinemann 1997). Cannabinoids are very safe to mammals. The oral LD 50 of THC in mice is greater than 21,600 mg/kg (Loewe 1946), safer than neem oil.
        Cannabinoids probably play a small role in Cannabis’ pesticidal activity, but aqueous Cannabis extracts work very well as pesticides, even if they contain little cannabinoid. Cannabis contains more than 400 chemicals (Turner et al. 1980). Their leaf glands ooze dozens of volatile compounds, such as terpenes, ketones, and esters which produce the characteristic odor of the plant (Ross and ElSohly 1996). The limonene and several pinenes which comprise over 75% of volatiles detected in the "headspace" atmosphere surrounding Cannabis leaves (Hood et al. 1973, Ross and ElSohly 1996) are powerful insect repellents. Methyl ketones present in Cannabis (Turner et al. 1980) also repel many leaf-eating insects (Kashyap et al. 1991). A synergistic combination of these many compounds may serve as the "active ingredient" in Cannabis.

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